Article Metrics

Article abstract view : 3508 times
PDF full text: 1681 times

Trends and Impacts of Different Barriers on Bangladeshi RMG Industrys Sustainable Development

Md Morshadul Hasan, Tanjina Parven, Shajib Khan, Appel Mahmud, Lu Yajuan


The main objective of this research is to investigate the trends and impacts of different barriers to Bangladeshi Ready-Made Garments (RMG) industrys growth and development. The influencing factors or barriers have identified and their impact has explored in this research. The trends of identified factors have shown with their specific reasons. Data of this research have collected from the apparel industry in Dhaka and Gazipur City Corporation area using different techniques based on random sampling from its fixed population specified by BGMEA. It has been found that most of the factors have a decreasing trend with mostly moderate impacts on the RMG industrys growth and development. The most important reason for this research is to help the investors who are going to invest in Bangladeshi apparel sector by showing the actual scenario. There has a few past research related to the impact on growth and development.

Full Text:



Abdin, M. J. (2008). Overall problems and prospects of Bangladeshi ready-made garment industry. SSRN Electronic Journal, http://www. researchgate. net/publication/228314998.

Absar & Syeda, S. (2001). Problem surrounding wages: The Ready-made Garment sector in Bangladesh. Labor and Management Development Journal, 2(7).

Adnan, A. T. M., Rakib, A., & Rahman, M. (2015). Export trend of Bangladesh: The dominance of ready-made garment industry. Research Journal of Economics, Business and ICT, 10(1).

Ahamed, M. (2014). A Report on Readymade Garment Industries of Bangladesh. Research department, JBBC Corporation, 1-17.

Ahmed, N. (2009). Sustaining ready-made garment exports from Bangladesh. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 39(4), 597-618.

Ahmed, N., & Nathan, D. (2014). Improving wages and working conditions in the Bangladeshi garment sector: The role of horizontal and vertical relations. Capturing the Gains. doi:10.1017/9781316217382.005

Ahmed, S., & Raihan, M. Z. (2014). Health status of the female workers in the garment sector of Bangladesh. J Faculty Econom Administr Sci, 4(1), 43-58.

Ahmed, S., Raihan, M. Z., & Islam, N. (2013a). Labor Unrest in the Ready-Made Garment Industry of Bangladesh, 8(15), 6880.

Akterujjaman, S. M., & Ahmad, M. H. (2016). Workers Satisfaction toward RMG Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Dhaka and Gazipur City. International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies, 3(2), 22-30.

Alam, M. S., & Natsuda, K. (2016). The competitive factors of the Bangladeshi garment industry in the post-MFA era. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'tudes du dveloppement, 37(3), 316-336

Ali, A., Kabir, R., & Uddin, S. (2017). Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness for RMG Industry of Bangladesh: A Pre and Post USGSP Suspension Analysis. International Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 3(6), 54.

Alam, M.S., Kabir, E., Rahman, M.M., & Chowdhury, M.A.K., (2004). Power sector reform in Bangladesh: electricity distribution system. Energy 29, 17731783.

Alam, M. S., & Natsuda, K. (2016). The Competitive Factors of the Bangladeshi Garment Industry in the Post-MFA Era. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 37(3), 316-336.

Amah, O. E. (2009). Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention Relationship: The Moderating Effect of Job Role Centrality and Life Satisfaction, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 17(1), 24-35.

Anderson, G., & Arsenault, N. (2005). Fundamentals of educational research. Routledge.

Anisul Huq, F., Stevenson, M., & Zorzini, M. (2014). Social sustainability in developing country suppliers: An exploratory study in the ready-made garments industry of Bangladesh. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 34(5), 610-638.

Bargawi, O. (2005). Cambodias Garment Industry Origins and Future Prospects, (October).

Barua, U., & Ansary, M. A. (2017). Workplace safety in Bangladesh ready-made garment sector: 3 years after the Rana Plaza collapse. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 23(4), 578-583.

Benabou, R. (1996). Equity and efficiency in human capital investment: the local connection. The Review of Economic Studies, 63(2), 237-264.

Berg, A., Hedrich, S., Kempf, S., & Tochtermann, T. (2011). Bangladeshs ready-made garments landscape: The challenge of growth. McKinsey &Company, Inc. Apparel, Fashion &Luxury Practice, 1-24.

BGMEA Data Sheet, Retrieved From

Bolle, M. J. (2014). Bangladesh apparel factory collapse: Background in brief. Congressional Research Service Report, 7-5700.

Burja, C. (2011). Factors Influencing the Companies' profitability. Annales Universitatis Apulensis: Series Oeconomica, 13(2), 215. D24, M48

Campaign, C. C. (2012). Hazardous workplaces: Making the Bangladesh Garment industry safe.

Chowdhury, M. M. H., & Quaddus, M. A. (2015). A multiple objective optimization based QFD approach for efficient resilient strategies to mitigate supply chain vulnerabilities: The case of garment industry of Bangladesh?,?. Omega, 57, 5-21.

Chowdhury, M. (2014). Study on implications of the inadequate electricity and gas supply in the RMG industry in Chittagong EPZ.

Campaign, C. C. (2012). Hazardous workplaces: Making the Bangladesh Garment industry safe.

Chowdhury, M. N. M., Uddin, S., & Saleh, S. (2014a). Present scenario of renewable and non-renewable resources in Bangladesh: A compact analysis. International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy, 3(6), 164-178.

Chowdhury, M., Ahmed, R., & Yasmin, M. (2014b). Prospects and Problems of RMG Industry: A study on Bangladesh. Prospects, 5(7), 103-118.

Chowdhury, M. F., & Tanim, T. R. (2016). Industrial Accidents in Bangladesh Apparel. DOI: 10.20448/journal.500/2016.3.2/500.2.115.126

Chowdhury, R. (2017). Rana Plaza Fieldwork and Academic Anxiety : Some Reflections.

Dheerasinghe, R. (2009). Garment industry in Sri Lanka challenges, prospects and strategies. Staff studies, 33(1).

Doucet, A., Godsill, S., & Andrieu, C. (2000). On sequential Monte Carlo sampling methods for Bayesian filtering. Statistics and computing, 10(3), 197-208.

Faruky, K. N. B., Uddin, A., & Hossain, T. (2011). Understanding the Challenges of Climate Change on Business: A Study on RMG Sector in Bangladesh.

Federico, S. M., FEDERICO, P. A., & Lundquist, G. W. (1976). Predicting women's turnover as a function of extent of met salary expectations and biodemographic data. Personnel Psychology, 29(4), 559-566.

Ferdous, S. R. (2015). The RMG Sector : Prospects and Challenges and Role of Different Stakeholders, (August).

Fienberg, S. E. (1979). Graphical methods in statistics. The American Statistician, 33(4), 165-178.

Fukunishi, T. (2014). The Bangladeshi garment sector in the liberalised market: is upgrading needed?. Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization.

Guadagnoli, E., & Velicer, W. F. (1988). Relation to sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological bulletin, 103(2), 265.

Haider, M. Z. (2007). Competitiveness of the Bangladesh ready-made garment industry in major international markets. Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Review, 3(1), 3-27.

Haque, A. (2009). Lead Time Management in the Garment Sector of Bangladesh : An Avenues for Survival and Growth, 33(4), 617629.

Hansen, H., Rand, J., & Tarp, F. (2009). Enterprise growth and survival in Vietnam: Does government support matter?. The Journal of Development Studies, 45(7), 1048-1069.

Hasan, K. F., Mia, M. S., Rahman, M. M., Ullah, A. A., & Ullah, M. S. (2016). Role of textile and clothing industries in the growth and development of trade & business strategies of Bangladesh in the global economy. International Journal of Textile Science, 5(3), 39-48.

Hasan, J. (2013). The Competitiveness of Ready Made Garments Industry of Bangladesh in Post MFA Era: How Does the Industry Behave to Face the Competitive Challenge? British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade, 3(3), 296306. doi:10.9734/bjemt/2013/4321

Hasan, M., & Mahmud, A. (2017). Risks Management of Ready-Made Garments Industry in Bangladesh. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 10(1), 1-13.

Hasan, M. M., Mahmud, A., & Islam, M. S. (2017). Deadly Incidents in Bangladeshi Apparel Industry and Illustrating the Causes and Effects of These Incidents. Journal of Finance and Accounting, 5(5), 193.

Health and Safety Authority, (2006). Guidelines on Risk Assessments and Safety Statements. Retrieved from:

Hossen, M. M., & Miazee, M. H. (2016). Industrial Disputes at Ready Made Garments in Bangladesh: An Analysis. Journal of Business and Economics Research, 5(6), 210-216.

Hossen, M. M., & Miazee, H. (2017). Industrial Disputes at Ready Made Garments in Bangladesh : An Analysis Industrial Disputes at Ready Made Garments in Bangladesh : An Analysis, (January 2016).

Hossain, A. K., & Badr, O. (2007). Prospects of renewable energy utilisation for electricity generation in Bangladesh. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11(8), 1617-1649.

Hossan, C. G., Sarker, M. A. R., & Afroze, R. (2012). Recent Unrest in the RMG Sector of Bangladesh: Is this an Outcome of Poor Labor Practices?. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(3), 206.

Hossain, M. U., & Roy, I. (2016). Supply Chain Management for Sustainable RMG Growth in Bangladesh. International Journal of Science and Research, 5(4), 1242-1248.

Hossain, N. (2012). Exports, equity, and empowerment: The effects of readymade garments manufacturing employment on gender equality in Bangladesh. Background paper for the WDR.

Hossain, R. (2015). Foreign Direct Investment on Bangladeshi Garments and textiles Sector: An overview of the foreign ownership in Bangladesh Garments and textiles.

Huda, S. S., & Akhtar, N. (2011). Employees view on job satisfaction: A study on garments industry in Bangladesh. Indus Journal of Management & Social Science (IJMSS), 5(1), 1-9.

Islam, M., Mustafi, M., & Islam, N. (2016). A Multivariate Analysis of Job Satisfaction of Ready-made Garments (RMG) Workers in Bangladesh.

Islam, M. R. (2013a). Workers Attitudes toward the Sustainable Human Resource Development in the Readymade Garments Industry of Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3(9), 991-998.

Islam, S. M. U, (2013b). Approaching Sustainability in Textile and Garment Industries, Bangladesh. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 STOCKHOLM, Sweden.

Islam, M. S., & Liang, G. Q. (2012). Supply chain management on apparel order process: a case study in Bangladesh garment industry. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 2(8), 60-72.

Jacobs, B. W., & Singhal, V. R. (2017). The effect of the Rana Plaza disaster on shareholder wealth of retailers: Implications for sourcing strategies and supply chain governance. Journal of Operations Management, 49, 52-66.


Khan, A. H., & Aleem, M. (2014). Impact of job satisfaction on employee turnover: An empirical study of Autonomous Medical Institutions of Pakistan. Journal of International Studies, 7(1), 122-132.

Khan, M. A. I. (2011). Labor Unrest in the RMG Sector of Bangladesh: A Public-Private Cooperation Perspective. A thesis paper in Master in Public Policy and Governance Program. Dhaka: Department of General and Continuing Education, North South University.

Khan, M. R. I., & Wichterich, C. (2015). Safety and labor conditions: the accord and the national tripartite plan of action for the garment industry of Bangladesh (No. 38). Global Labor University Working Paper.

Kibria, N. (1998). Becoming a Garments Worker : The Mobilization of Women into the Garments Factories of Bangladesh, (March).

Koch, M. J., & McGrath, R. G. (1996). Improving labor productivity: Human resource management policies do matter. Strategic management journal, 17(5), 335-354.

Kox, H. L., & Rubalcaba, L. (2007). Analysing the contribution of business services to European economic growth.

Laufer, W. S. (2003). Social accountability and corporate greenwashing. Journal of business ethics, 43(3), 253-261.

Liedholm, C., McPherson, M., & Chuta, E. (1994). Small enterprise employment growth in rural Africa. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76(5), 1177-1182.

Mailafia, S., Onakpa, M. M., & Owoleke, O. E. (2010). Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria-A review. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3(2), 20-25.Mahdi, A. F., Zin, M. Z. M., Nor, M. R. M., Sakat, A. A., & Naim, A. S. A. (2012). The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 9(9), 1518-1526.

Mancini, M. E., Cazzell, M., Kardong-Edgren, S., Cason, C. L., Berryman, P., & Lukes, E. (2009). Improving workplace safety training using a self-directed CPR-AED learning program. Aaohn Journal, 57(4), 159-169.

Mariani, R. D. (2013). Working conditions in the Bangladeshi garment sector: Social dialogue and compliance.

Meyer, M. H., & Mugge, P. C. (2001). Make platform innovation drive enterprise growth. Research-Technology Management, 44(1), 25-39.

Moazzem, K. G. (2014). 4 transformation of the export-oriented, ready-made garment sector of Bangladesh: changes, challenges and the future outlook. enhancing productivity in Bangladeshs garment sector, 15.

Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological bulletin, 86(3), 493.

Mohibullah, A. T. M. (2016). The Consequence of Backward Linkage of RMG Sector in Bangladesh -an The Consequence of Backward Linkage of RMG Sector in Bangladesh - an Overview, (January).

Morshed, M. M. (2007). A study on labor rights implementation in readymade garment (RMG) industry in Bangladesh: Bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Mottaleb, K. A., & Sonobe, T. (2011). An inquiry into the rapid growth of the garment industry in Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 60(1), 67-89. doi:10.1086/661218

Mozumder, P., & Marathe, A. (2007). Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh. Energy policy, 35(1), 395-402.

Murshid, K. A. S., Zohir, S. C., Ahmed, M., Zabid, I., & Mehdi, A. T. M. S. (2009). The global financial crisis implications for Bangladesh. BIDS-PRP Working Paper Series, 1.

Patwary, M. A., OHare, W. T., Street, G., Elahi, K. M., Hossain, S. S., & Sarker, M. H. (2009). Quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh. Waste management, 29(8), 2392-2397.

Polkinghorne, D. E. (2005). Language and meaning: Data collection in qualitative research. Journal of counseling psychology, 52(2), 137.

Rahman, F. S. (2015). The RMG Sector of Bangladesh : Problems and Survival Strategy The RMG Sector of Bangladesh : Problems and Survival Strategy, (August), 014.

Rahman, S. M., Arif, M. M. H., &, Islam, M. S., (2016). IFTAR Business Process and Strategies: A Study of IFTAR Shop in Rangpur City-Corporation. Science Journal of Business and Management, 4(4), 127-131.

Raihan, A. (2002). Contribution of the RMG Sector to the Bangladesh Economy.

Ramesh Kurpad, M. (2014). Made in Bangladesh: challenges to the ready-made garment industry. Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, 13(1), 80-96.

Randhawa, G. (2007). Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions : An Empirical Analysis. Indian Management Studies Journal, 11(December), 147159.

Ramesh Kurpad, M. (2014). Made in Bangladesh: challenges to the ready-made garment industry. Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, 13(1), 80-96.

Razzaue, A., Eusuf, A., & Shamannay, U. (2007). Trade, Development and Poverty Linkage: Case Study of Ready-Made Garment Industry in Bangladesh. Unnayan Shamannay, 4-8.

Razzaue, A. (2007). Trade, Development and Poverty Linkage : A Case Study of Ready Made Garment Industry in Bangladesh Trade, Development and Poverty Linkage : A Case Study of Ready Made Garment Industry in Bangladesh, (April).

Reukauf, J. A. (2018). The Correlation Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in Small Business.

Rock, M. (2003). Labor conditions in the export-oriented garment industry in Bangladesh. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 26(3), 391-407.

Rubel, M. R. B., Kee, D. M. H., Quah, C. H., & Rimi, N. N. (2017). Ethical Climate and Employee Turnover Intention in the Ready?Made Garment Industry of Bangladesh. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 36(2), 61-73.

Sam, M., Fazli, M., & Hoshino, Y. (2013). Sales Growth, Profitability and Performance: Empirical Study of Japanese ICT Industries with Three ASEAN Countries.

Saxena, S. B., & Salze-Lozach, V. (2010), Competitiveness in the garment and textiles industry: Creating a supportive environment: A Case Study of Bangladesh, The Asia Foundation: Occasional paper, No. 1.

Shah, N. H., & Jumani, N. B. (2015). Relationship of job satisfaction and turnover intention of private secondary school teachers. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), 313.

SHAKIR-ul haque Khan, T. U., & Rahman, S. H. (2012). A brief study of the prospect of solar energy in generation of electricity in Bangladesh. Cyber Journals: Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journal of Selected Areas in Renewable and Sustainable Energy (JRSE), June Edition.

Sinkovics, N., Hoque, S. F., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2016). Rana Plaza collapse aftermath: are CSR compliance and auditing pressures effective? Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 29(4), 617-649.

Steinisch, M., Yusuf, R., Li, J., Rahman, O., Ashraf, H. M., Strmpell, C., ... & Loerbroks, A. (2013). Work stress: Its components and its association with self-reported health outcomes in a garment factory in BangladeshFindings from a cross-sectional study. Health & place, 24, 123-130.

Sukriket, P. (2018). The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention of Thai software programmers in Bangkok, Thailand. AU Journal of Management, 12(2), 42-52.

Taheruzzaman, M., & Janik, P. (2016). Electric Energy Access in Bangladesh. Transactions on Environment and Electrical Engineering, 1(2), 6-17.

Trip, F. (2014). Ready-Made Garment Industry : The Road to Progress, Insights from the Bangladesh Field Trip (April 2013), 16

USAID, 2003. USAID Bangladesh energy. United States Agency for International Development, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved From: (

Wadud, Z., Dey, H. S., Kabir, M. A., & Khan, S. I. (2011). Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh. Energy Policy, 39(11), 7372-7380.

Wadud, Z., Huda, F. Y., & Ahmed, N. U. (2014). Assessment of fire risk in the readymade garment industry in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Fire Technology, 50(5), 1127-1145.

Woodruff, C. (2014). Managing for efficiency in the garment sector. University of Warwick.

Yamagata, T. (2007). Prospects for development of the garment industry in developing countries: what has happened since the MFA phase-out?. Japan external trade organization (JETRO). Institute of developing economies (IDE).

Yunus, M., & Yamagata, T. (2012). The garment industry in Bangladesh. Dynamics of the Garment Industry in Low-Income Countries: Experience of Asia and Africa (Interim Report). Chousakenkyu Houkokusho, IDE-JETRO.

Afwblogcoordinator (Appril 9, 2009). Retrieved From:

Copyright (c) 2018 Md Morshadul Hasan, Tanjina Parven

International Research Journal of Business Studies has been covered by the following services:

Image result for university of Saskatchewan small logo